As the uncertainties of 2020 overwhelm our society, one certainty remains clear: modern slavery continues to devastate lives. This exploitation can take many forms – human trafficking, servitude and forced labour. Contrary to what many may believe, modern slavery is not just a developing-world problem. It is an issue largely driven and sustained by multinationals that are trying to maximize their profits to meet insatiable consumer appetites.
Modern slavery is particularly prevalent within the clothing manufacturing and retail sectors. The Rana Plaza factory collapse devastated thousands of Bangladeshi lives back in 2013 and was a stark wake-up call for western retailers, consumers and international standardization organisations. However, since the collapse, there have been further reports of Uyghur workers forced into labour in Xinjiang concentration camps while 6,000 miles away in Leicester, workers are paid as little as £3.50 an hour, making clothes for fast-fashion brands.
The reality is that poor working practices have been allowed to exist for decades because these unethical conditions can be straightforward for an organisation to disguise.
As the media work hard to unearth brands and retailers at fault, the need for ethical sourcing has become a hot topic and an essential feature on many business agendas. However, the cost and complexities of ethical auditing can be a burden on some companies so they either don’t do it or they resort to generic factory audits that make it difficult to identify and resolve issues specific to their businesses.
There is also the question of how far down a supply chain the auditing is conducted; if it stops at Tier 2, how would an organisation know what treatment was going on below that level? Often it’s a question of cost and complexity: managing, say, 50 vendors at Tiers 1 and 2 using email, spreadsheets and telephone calls may just about be manageable but increasing that to include another 500 Tier 3 vendors may just about break that particular system and render it unworkable.
When discussing ethical sourcing, there seem to be four categories of which retailers and brand owners fall into:
Those who say they ethically source and do
Those who would like to ethically source but do not have a suitable programme
Those who say they ethically source but do not
Those who pay no attention to ethical sourcing at all
For all those that fall into category number 2, there is tangible hope. If a company wants to trade ethically and it has the will, culture and budget in place, then audit-management software, ClearChain is here to help.
ClearChain allows organisations to create their audit templates and allows access to suppliers to update action plans. Because of the customising ability, it supports auditing objectives of any type: sustainability, Net Zero, packaging, training needs, health & safety and more.
ClearChain also allows you to map your entire supply chain, giving you a holistic view of your entire operation. With the benefit of the audit data that is collected, it enables you to answer the big questions facing your organisation.
To learn more about the ClearChain software and how it can help your organisation reach its ethical sourcing objectives, then please visit https://www.clearchain.app/
This year hasn’t been a stranger to exposing society’s core flaws and as the lock-down restrictions ease in Britain it has become apparent that this has not been an equal-opportunity pandemic. Not only has the virus killed hundreds of thousands of people globally, but it is also deepening the consequences of existing structural inequality, burdening the losers of today’s polarized economies and job markets.
Society’s response to coronavirus continues to disproportionately affect vulnerable groups, like disabled people, who have borne the brunt of socioeconomic marginalization long before the pandemic began. As the question “but did they have underlying health conditions?” continues to be asked in response to coronavirus-related deaths, it feels increasingly like a euphemism for those that society has given up on.
Research carried out by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) shows that the pandemic is unfairly impacting disabled people. Further anecdotal stories suggest that disabled people are more susceptible to the virus and have been significantly impacted by social distancing and shielding measures. Within the disabled population, many people have been denied access to healthcare and aid support, which has had a detrimental effect on their ability to live independently and to participate in the labour market.
Inequality towards disabled people has been a core issue for many years and outdated attitudes regarding the abilities of disabled people have put the UK into an employment crisis. There are one million disabled people in the UK who want to work, have the necessary qualifications and experience for the role, but who aren’t given the opportunity to succeed. A recent YouGov survey which focused on HR decision-makers revealed that more than one in ten (11%) questioned, believed that disabled people should accept lower-paid positions and a quarter (26%) of businesses questioned claimed that they had never interviewed a disabled candidate.
Disabled and vulnerable workers continue to face huge employment challenges as they compete with the ‘able-bodied’ population. Occupational segregation, non-unionized sectors and sub-par wages have caused employment rates among the disabled to decline. And for those wishing to enter the workplace, ‘ableist’ attitudes in recruitment are swiftly halting the progression of many applications.
Despite anti-discrimination legislation, workplaces remain plagued with inaccessible jobs, job descriptions and working environments. The same survey by YouGov uncovered that nearly half of the businesses interviewed (47%), said that creating an inclusive workplace for disabled people hasn’t ever been a priority, further admitting that the high unemployment rates are due to the employers’ lack of resources and skills when knowing how to integrate disabled talent.
When talking about this issue, Mark Hodgkinson, the Chief Executive at disability and equality charity Scope, expressed “There is a huge amount of disabled talent and potential, for companies to tap into. It’s absolutely scandalous that a quarter of HR decision-makers claim that they have never had a disabled candidate for a job interview, and leadership boards often don’t even discuss disability”.
In order to tackle these entrenched, structural inequalities and to accelerate social change for disabled applicants , Scope UK and Virgin Media are urging UK companies to sign their #WorkWithMe pledge. Backed by global businesses such as Phillips and JCB, this initiative is designed to improve workplace practices and to support the millions of disabled people, to gain the skills and confidence to become competitive applicants.
The pledge is a free, five-step plan designed to help businesses take accountability and receive practical advice on how to improve existing workplace policies, practices and culture, to create a more inclusive and ethical working environment.
As we gingerly enter the post-COVID-19 era or the so-called “new normal”, we can only hope that businesses start to realise the potential in disabled applicants and existing employees, in order to work towards making everyday equality in the workplace a reality for disabled people.
“Write what you know”, has been uttered in encouragement ever since I started writing professionally. Ironically, the subject that I know all too well is the one which I find the most challenging to write about. The difficulty lies within its inexpressibility and resistance to language. However, in an attempt to look forward to life after lock-down, questions about my eligibility to land an interesting job in full-time employment, under my somewhat abnormal circumstances, have become more prevalent. In light of my search for career clarity, I thought it was about time to talk with radical sincerity, about the attributes that I have learnt by overcoming adversities.
I am one of the 28 million adults in the UK living with chronic pain – a silent epidemic during a global pandemic. Nationally recognised as a disability under the Equality Act 2010, my chronic pain makes me a disabled job-seeker, a potential ticked box in a company’s diversity quota, and an individual who wants to work.
Realising that I had a disability was a hard pill to swallow, as I had absorbed the societal mindset that being disabled was a weakness. After all, the word “disability” carries the connotation of “inability”, whether or not such an assumption is true. Almost unconsciously, I have spent years thinking I am weak because of my health challenges. To counteract this, I struggled against the current, working hard to prove my intelligence, ambition and capability to those around me.
I was 17 and studying for my A-Levels when I got told that I was suffering from two life-threatening conditions (Chiari malformation and Syringomyelia) that could leave me paralysed if I didn’t have surgery. I remember looking at my neurosurgeon in disbelief as he showed me an MRI of my brain – the cerebellar tonsils had herniated 11mm through my skull and into the spinal canal, which had blocked the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, causing fluid-filled cavities to flood my spinal cord.
The operation was successful but the damage to my spinal cord was irreversible. I had developed numbness and tremors in my hands, widespread neuropathic pain, scoliosis, Hypermobility Syndrome, allodynia and nerve root damage in my rib cage, migraines and dissociative seizures. After recovering from the initial surgery, the challenge of managing the barrage of symptoms began.
Armed with a gnarly post-operative scar, I went back to college and retook my exams. In the summer of 2013, I moved to Somerset, having secured a place at Bath Spa to study a BA in Creative Writing and Drama. While studying, I heard that a close friend from home had passed away and the year that followed was my ‘rock bottom’, as I bore the brunt of the psychological effects of this newest trauma. My physical pain fought hard to compete as my mental health worsened and I ended up in a vicious cycle, which ultimately put an end to my studies.
It was at this point when my parents reached into the detritus of my life and through words of support, they helped to recover a sliver of determination among the rubble. Their help enabled me to get a freelance job as a writer at a magazine and land a place on an NHS residential pain management course in London.
I had started the course heavily medicated with antidepressants, opioids, NSAIDs and steroids all working hard and failing miserably at reducing my pain levels. In the space of four weeks, I left my flat in St Thomas’ Hospital, free of those painkillers and instead, equipped with a mindful approach to pain management. After what had been an intensive month of teachings from doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, psychologists and occupational therapists, I realised that it was my mindset that was holding me back from being independent and happy.
Four years later, I hiked the West Highland Way trail in Scotland and later took a marketing job in an apparel company in Ghana. As I sat in a moment of serenity, with friends underneath the tallest waterfall in West Africa, I realised that what I had experienced wasn’t a weakness to my character, it was strength in its truest form – I had learnt how to be resilient in the face of adversity.
I am now 25 and nearing the end of what has been a difficult and far from linear recovery. I remain under the care of a local pain-management team who organise regular steroid-injections, nerve blocks, physiotherapy and mindfulness sessions to keep my body and mind as healthy and stable as they can be. I continue to work as a freelance writer and I have an irreplaceable network of friends and family supporting me as I navigate becoming independent.
It has become obvious to me that to survive in this world as an “able” person, you need tremendous strength and to survive as a disabled person, requires the same strengths and a lot more, including a Herculean dose of resilience. Our disabilities may make our bodies prone to weaknesses but as the insufferable saying goes, “what doesn’t kill us, makes us stronger”.
The COVID-19 pandemic has been first and foremost a humanitarian crisis, with the fallout having a debilitating impact on the global economy, as activity slowed to a resounding halt back in March. As we forecast our outlook on what a post-pandemic economy will look like, advancing a stable climate and prioritizing sustainable development may have slipped further down the list of priorities. However, in observance of the UN’s World Environment Day focusing on Biological Diversity, it is a critical reminder that without the inclusion of sustainable development in our core business practices, a successful socioeconomic rebound may not be possible.
The need for businesses to synergize efforts for shareholders and stakeholders to create long-term and sustained value was highlighted at the World Economic Forum at Davos 2020. As the fastest-growing major economy and the architect of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), India is uniquely placed to guide the rest of the world on the integration of the economic, environmental and social dimensions of a purpose-driven trajectory.
Although a key contributor to the global economy, India’s high demand for ‘dirty’ palm oil continues to raise sustainability concerns within its fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) market.
Considered the most economic crop, palm oil and palm kernel oil, together account for 40% of the global supply of vegetable oils as per the OECD-FAO Agriculture Outlook 2019-28. African oil palms, which are native to West Africa, produce high yields of fruit that are processed at diesel-powered mills to extract the oil, which is then shipped across the world in crude, refined or processed forms. This cheap, production-efficient and highly stable oil is a versatile ingredient that is used in a variety of food, hygiene and cosmetic products and is even used in the creation of biodiesel. According to World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reports, it’s yield is four to ten times more oil per hectare than other vegetable oil, making palm oil production an efficient and profitable use of land.
However, the uncontrolled cultivation of the palm oil crop has resulted in it being dubbed as a highly controversial commodity, as its production sees devastating losses of critical rainforest cover and biodiversity. According to the WWF, the equivalent of 300 football fields of rainforest are cleared hourly in Southeast Asia for palm oil. Deforestation and hunting-related to palm oil production killed nearly 150,000 Bornean orangutans between 1999 and 2015. This environmental degradation to produce unsustainable palm oil is potentially a major facilitator of deadly, zoonotic diseases. Indonesia, which is currently the largest producer of palm oil, has the highest deforestation rate in the world. Malaysia isn’t far behind. As the second largest palm oil producing country, 15% of its total land area is covered by palm oil plantations.
This unsustainable expansion continues to cause toxic pollution and severe spikes in CO2 emissions, catapulting Indonesia into becoming one of the worst CO2 emitting countries in the world. As labelled the “Southeast Asian trans-boundary Haze”, the smog blankets entire cities, forcing its population into a collective asthma attack by financially and socially burdening the Indonesians and Malaysians.
As the largest importer and second largest consumer for palm oil in the world, India consumes 23% of the global supply; closely followed by China (at 16%) and the EU (14%). The commodity’s low cost and middle-class expenditure increase on FMCGs, groceries and personal care products has resulted in palm oil becoming the most consumed and in-demand vegetable oil in India. While palm oil cultivation has led to environmental degradation, it has remained dominant in India’s edible oil market, as its demand of providing inexpensive food to an ever-growing population increases. According to the Centre for Responsible Business (CRB), governmental organisations have realised the growing importance of the palm oil industry however, the policies and measures adopted so far, have focused largely on promoting domestic cultivation rather than on imported palm oil. This inherent complexity is central to the palm oil paradox, as India relies almost entirely on imports, while domestic production is estimated at less than 4%. As Kamal Prakash Seth, the Indian Representative from the Roundtable on Sustainable Production of Palm Oil (RSPO) echoed,
“if India were to demand, there is a significant stock of RSPO’s ‘Certified Sustainable Palm Oil’ in Indonesia and Malaysia. The challenge is not to supply but to commit to importing sustainably produced palm oil. It is a shared responsibility across the supply chain and also a big opportunity for businesses in India to rebuild the economy in a more sustainable manner during and after the COVID-19 crisis”.
Today, approximately 86% of all palm oil is cultivated in Malaysia and Indonesia and 4.5 million people are earning a living from the industry. In Indonesia alone, another 25 million people indirectly rely on palm oil productions for their livelihoods. This means that if produced responsibly, palm oil could play important roles in the alleviation of poverty, disease and habitat conservation.
Although the environmental and social side effects associated with palm oil are not localised in India, the large import volumes make India and Indian companies important players in efforts to mitigate the destructive impacts, by transforming the culture of the industry. However, due to the trans-boundary nature of the impacts, the challenge of advocating and engaging the Indian industry to transition to the use of certified sustainable palm oil increases.
The RSPO is driving this change by uniting stakeholders from the seven sectors of the palm oil industry: oil palm producers, processors or traders, consumer goods manufacturers, retailers, banks/investors and NGOs, to implement global standards for sustainable and protected palm oil production. The RSPO has developed a set of social and environmental criteria which companies must comply with, in order to produce certified sustainable palm oil. When implemented, these outcomes are designed to improve the lives’ of farmers and to create a more prosperous palm oil industry with a mind to conservation of the planet and its resources. Currently the RSPO has 4,755 global members, producing 15.40 million tonnes of sustainable palm oil on 4.22 million hectares of certified land. While the world falls under the grip of the virus, upholding social standards for palm oil workers is now more crucial than ever. To support this, the RSPO is encouraging their members to strengthen human and labour rights by providing their workers with job security, decent living wages and the provision of healthy and adequate food, among other social requirements.
To strengthen the sustainability trajectory, in 2018, the RSPO joined forces with the Centre for Responsible Business (CRB), World Wildlife Fund (WWF) India and Rainforest Alliance to form an industry-driven multi-stakeholder coalition (I-SPOC) to facilitate industry collaboration across the value chain of sustainable palm oil. The forum addresses the barriers and challenges in sustainable palm oil production by reviewing policies, production best practices, trade linkages and consumer sensitisation to sustainability. Educating consumers on their consumption and purchasing behaviours creates a powerful cycle of momentum. If consumer demand for sustainable products becomes more prevalent, then businesses are more likely to invest in responsible practices. Therefore, consumer conscientiousness shouldn’t be ignored and is a powerful driver of change. Despite its infancy, I-SPOC is demonstrating to the rest of the world that by constructively engaging with stakeholders, governments and consumers, India has the power to build resilient supply chains of the responsible production and consumption of palm oil.
As a post-pandemic existence looms, 2020-2030 could be the most environmentally, economically and socially consequential decade in modern history. To be able to successfully recover from this crisis, the world needs a moment of introspection. As highlighted by Rijit Sengupta, the Chief Executive Officer at the Centre for Responsible Business:
As we forge ahead into our recovery, the inclusion of sustainable development in our core business practices has never been more important to our economic recovery and inclusive growth. We owe our planet that much.
By now, it is not only the environment that is suffering. In the months leading up to COVID-19, our relative indifference to the catastrophe of climate change was a far cry from the pandemonium you might have expected when a planet is dying. Oceans were rising; forests were falling; the world was reaching boiling point, yet we carried on much the same.
As bush fires ripped through Australia earlier this year, slaughtered and live wild animals were on sale in Asia; while coral reefs around the world were bleached to death and atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases were at the highest levels ever recorded. Despite best efforts from Greta Thunberg, the opposing fight against climate change still felt like ignoring the hemorrhaging tap of an overflowing bath, electing instead to dutifully mop the floor.
As we enter the second month of lock-down in the UK, both businesses and individuals alike are worrying about what a post-COVID world will look like. Although it is an uncertain time, this crisis is an opportunity to reflect on how we have previously approached climate concerns and how we can move forward with a mind to our planet, people and the global economy. Poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand, so developing a sustainable culture is integral to this transformation. To achieve this, we need to influence attitude change on an individual level, before a systemic change can be enabled on a macro level.
In light of this, it has become imperative to discuss the social, environmental and economic issues relating to the Coronavirus pandemic; with a spotlight on sustainable advancements made as a direct result of this period of global reflection.
The time for change is now. And together we can create a more sustainable and ethical world.
Stories spiced with juicy and scabrous anecdotes are inherent to the debauched, carefree lifestyle of rock stars and I wonder if their charm would be the same otherwise. Throughout much of the 20th century, Rock ‘n’ Roll saw the rooster-haired vocalist Rod Stewart and his band The Faces, trash countless hotel rooms, Ozzy Osborne snorting ants and excited groupies embroiled in sexual acts with band members. But were they all bad boys?
Although the genre was responsible for the rise in recreational drug use, anti-social behaviour and the practice of unsafe sex, it also caused raucous but necessary drifts from societal expectations, by tackling social causes using the common, hippy themes of love and peace: During the 1950s, Rock ‘n’ Roll proved its global importance during the Civil Rights Movement by heralding the way to desegregation in America and notably, John Lennon was vocal in his anti-war sentiment, “Imagine” which has stood the test of time as an abstract evocation of peace.
One of the most influential rock bands of the era, The Kinks were no strangers to challenging issues of importance. In 1970, the band released their eighth studio album, Lola versus Powerman and the Moneygoround, Part One, from which the featured song “Apeman”reached No. 5 on the UK singles chart. The song lays bare Ray Davies’ wishes to leave his fast-paced urbanized lifestyle because the “air pollution is fogging up my eyes”, in order to revert back to a simpler, pre-evolutionary state. He discusses his desire to escape the “over-population and inflation and starvation and the crazy politicians”. Although goofy in delivery, the hippy sentiment leaves a sting to be remembered when he sings, “I don’t want to live in this world no more, I want to sail away to a distant shore and make like an Apeman”.
The hit was released during a wave of environmentalism in the United States and Great Britain, and it soon became an anthem for sustainable activism. It is fitting that in the same year, Earth Day was founded. “Apeman” is now approaching its 50th anniversary and its meaning is still incredibly relevant today; reminding the world that we need to continue acting on sustainable change, in order to have a better future.
Few things can capture a movement quite like music and for over half a century, Rock ‘n’ Roll has led a rich seam of eco-conscious artists who have brought awareness to climate change, sustainability, political and social issues. The genre has not only produced some of the greatest artists of all time, but it has proven that honest lyricism and unparalleled instrumentation is all we need to spark the sort of change that will last for generations.
All in all, The Kinks were right about our planet: the air pollution is fogging up our eyes and it’s about time we did something about it.
From sleeping rough, vulnerable to rape and prostitution, Teni Agana, Founder of the Loozeele Initiative, managed to change her life around and is now working hard to employ vulnerable girls in Ghana.
Could you tell me a bit about yourself – your ambition to start the company and your journey to get where you are today?
We cannot choose who we are born to or where we come from, but we have the power to dream of who we want to become.
My name is Teni Agana, a proud native of Sherigu, in the Upper East Region of Ghana. I was born to parents with no form of education. My late dad was a truck pusher and my mom worked in a local eatery, commonly known as a “chop bar”. When I turned 10 years old, my life changed. One afternoon, I found a picture of a woman smiling in a graduation gown on the floor. I realized I wanted to be like that woman. So, I held on to it as a reminder that someday I would wear a graduation gown.
After completing Junior High School, I took a gap year to raise money for my higher education and other family needs. I spent a whole year in a local market in Bantama, a suburb in the Ashanti region, working as a Kayayei.
Following my BECE results, I enrolled in Bolgatanga Girls’ Senior High School to study Business and excelled with competitive grades. I used my savings to cover all expenses in my first year and the subsequent years, I went back to Bantama to work during vacations to raise funds for my fees.
For those who are not sure who the Kayayei are: Kayayei translates as “Women head porters”. Kaya is an occupation in Ghana that involves carrying items in the market from one place to another for a fee. Kayayei is not a crime nor is it an immoral act, but the social, economic and health issues associated with the work makes it dangerous. The Kayayei phenomenon sees increases school drop-outs and high levels of illiteracy in the North, increased unemployment in urban cities, pressure on social amenities in the south and an increase in social ills such as robbery, prostitution, rape, teenage pregnancy.
My journey of becoming an Ashesi graduate has not been an easy one. To raise money, I would carry peoples’ items all day and make a total of about 15 cedis (£2.10) a day. As the sun set, we would have to think about where we could sleep for the night. To avoid being sacked by shop owners if we camped outside their shops, we often slept in the open, using our basins as pillows and to avoid being raped at night, we’d tie our feet together. Sometimes, we’d take turns to sleep and one of us would keep watch to prevent us from being attacked.
Regardless of the ever-so-present dangers, I still had the burning desire to wear my graduation gown. My mother has always supported me and together we worked hard to raise the money needed so I could go to university. It was a week before we were due to travel back to the North of Ghana, when my mum was knocked down by a car.
With my mum in the hospital, I had to use the money both of us had worked hard to raise, to pay for the hospital bills. Handing over our money was the most difficult moment of my life as I knew that we were back to square one.
I was on my way to buy my mum food when I came across a woman who was crying out that her child needed blood urgently. No one had the blood type required and the hospital blood bank had run dry. I offered to help and luckily, my blood type was a match. The girl’s mum later thanked me for my generosity and after we exchanged stories, she recommended CAMFED – an NGO dedicated to empowering females through education.
My mum later recovered and with the help of the organisation, I applied to universities in Ghana and was offered a place at Ashesi University in Accra, to study Business Administration, with the help of a four-year MasterCard scholarship. Being a student was a dream come true – a new environment to explore with new people. However, it was not easy at all. I was always lagging during coding classes because I had never used a computer before but with the help of friends and lecturers, I persevered and my grades soon improved. Throughout university, I knew that I wasn’t only buying myself freedom; but I was supporting my family too.
Exactly a year ago, my dream of wearing a gown came true and I did not only graduate; I graduated with the presidential award under my belt.
After graduating, I started an initiative to help girls like myself have a better future and to stay in education. I train and support young girls from the North of Ghana and those who are working as a Kayayei, with entrepreneurship skills to enable them to create a source of income for themselves. I vividly remember how we used to sleep on the streets of Ghana with our legs tied together to protect ourselves. Some of my friends were raped and some disappeared.
I want to make a difference because of the above problem. My team is committed to helping vulnerable girls to become the great women they dream to be. At Loozeele Initiative, we are following our dream to contribute to the sustainable development of Northern Ghana, promoting education and reducing poverty. Our products range from traditional smocks to bags and purses, that have been handmade by our girls.
Instead of sacrificing education to transport heavy items, sleeping on dusty side roads and being raped at night, at Loozeele Initiative, we encourage our girls to go to school and work after their education has finished for the day. We sell their products and 5% of the revenue is contributed towards our annual educational program, while 20% of profit is saved for their school needs.
What do you want to have achieved in ten years time?
In the next 10 years, I hope that we manage to support more girls and we are in a better financial situation to diversify and create different products, from agricultural to lifestyle products. Instead of dreaming about a university graduation gown, I now dream that I will be able to continue to help this cause.
You have made an impressive life for yourself despite challenging circumstances. How important is it to you that Ghanaian women are protected and given the same opportunities to succeed as men?
I’ve always found the idea of leadership paradoxical and gendered. Men sit under huge trees to make decisions concerning the society without the involvement of women. The otherwise rich culture emphasizes patriarchal leadership and sidelines the matriarch power, which cherishes the contributions of men more than that of women. Although women contribute as much time and effort to society, they are not given as much credence and opportunities. To be, at least, considered at the decision-making table as a woman, requires working twice as hard in all spheres while battling with the cultural barriers that stall progress. We are all unique and different, no one on this planet can ever be like us, so we should all be given equal opportunities, regardless of gender.
And lastly, do you have any advice for young women wanting to make a tangible difference in the world?
I would advise them to take a bold step and start it. It often won’t be an easy journey, but the difference you will make in life will be worth it.
To those who have 40 packets of pasta in their cupboards, to those who are stockpiling toilet roll, to those who are stealing hand sanitizer from hospitals, to those who are brawling in supermarkets over food and to those who are planning to flee from their homes to get to a safe, Covid-19-free zone: never look down upon those who are fleeing from conflict or persecution.
According to Pharmaceutical Technology, the total number of Covid-19 cases has increased to more than 110,000 in 108 countries worldwide, while recoveries currently stand at a 61,000. This invisible and serious threat has caused a climbing death toll of 3,800. As is the nature of an epidemic, these figures will likely increase until vaccinations are developed. It has been an untameable challenge for many who are trying to find their bearings amidst the chaos effectuated by national lock-downs, scare-mongering and widespread panic. Because the virus isn’t discriminatory, globalized terror is rife and tensions are rising as our collective freedom has been falsified by an epidemic that shows no signs of slowing down.
As cordons sanitaires are tightening in affected countries, those stuck in quarantine are being confronted with hard decisions about jobs, schooling and travelling. Several Hong Kong residents have chosen to flee their homes to safer areas, leaving family displaced. This exodus is what those fleeing from Syria, Libya, South Sudan and Afghanistan have to face every day.
Help Refugees reported that a staggering 70.8 million individuals have been forcibly displaced by persecution, conflict, violence or human rights violations. This record is on parity to the entire population of the UK being forced to flee their homes.
It is difficult to fathom what it must be like to be a displaced individual in a foreign country, separated from friends and family, sailing across oceans in cramped coffins, unprotected from injury and death. Battling every day to stay alive, these poor people have limited to no access to clean water, health facilities, sanitation and protection. Merely existing in uncharted and overcrowded spaces, it is a materialization of an ongoing state of emergency.
In Greece, camps are bursting at the seams. “Hunting parties” are being set up on Facebook by Greek locals, using deplorable acts of violence to wipe out those trying to seek respite on the shores of Evros. Journalists, doctors and NGO workers are among those being attacked by civilians, who are opposing aid given to the refugees. Thankfully for some of the victims of this dystopian horror, pictures shared through social media has put public and political pressure on EU governments to show their humanitarian sides. Germany, alongside Portugal, France, Luxembourg and Finland have pledged to help the Greek government mediate the distribution of refugees and migrant children with a coalition of volunteers.
Unlike immigration laws, attitudes towards refugees are not bound by any parameters. It is a tangible possibility that any one of us could be forced into a similar situation – to flee our homes and to seek safety somewhere else. When we discuss “refugees” or “asylum seakers” we speak as though they are entirely foreign concepts. There is an intercultural failure when understanding that these “refugees” are just people desperately escaping life-threatening circumstances in the hope for a safer life.
When you look at the Covid-19 crisis and the on-going refugee crisis, there are indisputable similarities between them. The most important is the need for protection. The only difference is the type of threat that they are fleeing from. If we wade through the noise, there is a transformative chance for us to empathize through this shared human experience and connect with those in need.
With this in mind, can we learn from the horrors of the Covid-19 outbreak, in order to commit to global acts of sympathy towards other displaced people, instead of evading this responsibility?
West Africa’s marine economy is under threat as the pressure on its resources increases. In September 2019, I had the opportunity to see this for myself.
I travelled from Accra across the arid, sandy plains of Ghana to the mouth of the Volta River in the south-east, during the peak fishing season. The estuary island of Ada Foah was fringed with palm trees, dugout fishing boats anchored on the shores, lulled by the languid flow of the tide, and the smell of their catch was rich in the air. We stood looking out at the vast Atlantic Ocean, with the primrose-coloured sand underfoot and plastic waste creeping between our toes. As we meandered across the island, we were joined by local fishermen, who insisted on giving us a boat tour, in exchange for a modest fee of 50 GHS (£7).
During this tour we learnt of the protected mangrove plantations: how they played a central role in transferring organic matter and energy from the land to marine ecosystems, serving as sea-defence and providing essential breeding grounds for aquatic and terrestrial species such as oysters, crabs, birds and fish.
Ghana is home to a vast and significant array of fauna, including twenty species of butterflies and three species of frogs that are endemic to the country. Although the coastlines are thriving in biodiversity, bush-hunting threatens the fauna, with crocodiles and turtles among many other mammals falling victim to slaughter. Hunting for bushmeat is loosely regulated by the government because the practice is still deeply rooted in tradition and remains an important component in the local diet. Like the ebbing and flowing of the sea, if the fish stocks are low, the demand for bushmeat will rise as hunger peaks.
Ghanaian cuisine is nutritious and filling. Many native dishes are based on starchy foods such as maize, plantain, yam and cassava, served with a spicy soup or stew with the addition of fish or meat. As a close friend used to say, “when we get hungry, we eat vegetables and animals, it is as simple as that”. Ghana’s current fish consumption sits at a whopping one million metric tonnes and contributes to food and nutrition security. It is consumed across the demographic spectrum, by the rural poor and by the urban rich, by the young and the old, in all regions in Ghana. The nation’s fishing sector is not only savoured by the masses, but it is also a valuable export, generating a significant source of foreign exchange for the government and thus; positively contributing to West Africa’s blue economy. These exports consist of tuna, frozen fish, shrimps, lobsters and cuttlefish.
Over 2.5 million people are employed in the fishing sector, providing employment opportunities during and post-harvest. This lucrative industry is playing a significant role in the socio-economic development and transformation of Ghana, by actively alleviating poverty in the country. However promising the blue economy to West Africa’s future may be, there are still existing challenges that are proving destructive to the sector, causing socio-economic decline and damage to the surrounding marine ecosystems. Climate change is unequivocally aggravating fisheries with rising sea temperatures, harsher and unreliable weather conditions and studies show the migration of fish from the equator to cooler waters.
Additionally, the Atlantic Ocean has become a playing field for international and industrial-scale fishing fleets racing against West African artisanal vessels to deplete and exploit the region’s fish stocks. This over-fishing has led to the decline of harvests from marine fisheries, damage to seafloors, habitat degradation and the reduction in biodiversity.
Illegal fishing continues to devastate West Africa.
Without the capacity to efficiently govern their waters, West African officials are struggling to keep unlicensed fishing vessels and illegal fishing and trading practices at bay. Livelihoods of artisanal fishermen along Ghana’s coast face regular and severe threats from pair-trawlers (utilising two fishing vessels with nets set in-between them), as they destroy local fishing gear and exhaust the West African waters of its marine resources. This buccaneer competition for depleting resources is leading to conflict between fishers and foreign fishing vessels.
Thankfully all is not lost for the conservation of the West African marine resource pool.
Stop Illegal Fishing is an independent African-based organisation, committed to ending the devastating impacts of illegal fishing. By working in partnership with the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), Planning and Coordination Agency of the African Union, surveillance practitioners and universities, Stop Illegal Fishing is harnessing global support to achieve a sustainable and legal fishing sector. By combining access to education, capacity-building and the implementation of investigative task forces across the continent, the organisation has been able to inform policy processes, create awareness and assist with identifying and halting illegal fishing operations. Stop Illegal Fishing has since created a network aimed at supporting African fishermen to stay within the sustainable and legal fishing framework.
West Africa’s marine economy is still under threat but with organisations like Stop Illegal Fishing supporting and sustaining the region’s blue economy, there will be light at the end of the tunnel.
For many, the pub is a home away from home, a building that is also kind of a friend: someone warm and sociable, someone to confide in, someone to hold your hair back, someone with a charming but dodgy sense of style. With an assemblage of mismatched art hangings, antlers and in my case; coy photos of the ‘Ken doll of gardening’ himself: Alan Titchmarsh. It’s difficult not to be enticed by Alan’s enveloping charm as you see him posing in a tree.
Alan Titchmarsh started his gardening career at the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, before transitioning into journalism and since, has made domestic gardening accessible and approachable for all.
“Gardening is not a preserve of anyone. Lords, dukes and duchesses can talk about it on a level playing field with ordinary folk.”
– Alan Titchmarsh
Estimated by the Waste Resources Action Programme (WRAP) and research compiled by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, conclude that a staggering one-third of all food produced in the world is wasted, with 4.1 million tonnes of food waste sent to landfill. While local authorities do collect household food and garden waste for large-scale composting operations, home composting is a hotter commodity, reducing civic costs for waste collection, decreasing transportation impacts and saving tasty amounts of money for those green fingered, guardians of the grub.
Despite the great “green” push that’s swept through gardening, mountains of garden rubbish are still ending up in landfill sites.
The silly thing is, the same people who take car-loads of garden waste to the tip or pay the council to collect them from their garden gate, are then buying bags of compost for the garden.
– Alan Titchmarsh
Composting is a natural process that decomposes food and garden waste into a rich fertiliser and soil conditioner, improving the structure of the soil and enriching the earth with diverse nutrients and microorganisms that will improve plant growth. Chemical fertilisers on the other hand can be pricey, they are non-renewable and long-term use acidifies the pH of the soil, causing detriment to the ecosystem.
Scoring the perfect carbon : nitrogen ratio is the secret to a thriving, hygienic compost – or so the experts at the local gardening society say. A healthy compost should have a higher amount of carbon to nitrogen, using one-third green and two-thirds brown materials. Carbon-rich matter (the brown stuff) like: branches, dried leaves, peels, wood, sawdust, vacuum dust, corks, shredded brown paper bags, coffee filters and grounds, egg shells and straw gives the compost its light and fluffy body. To balance the ratio out, Nitrogen or protein-rich matter (the green stuff) like: manure, food scraps, pet hair, lawn clippings and green leaves, provides the raw materials used to make enzymes. protein-rich matter (manures, food scraps, green lawn clippings, kitchen waste, and green leaves) provides raw materials for producing enzymes. By investing in a robust bin and getting to grips with what you can and can’t compost, you will be well on your way to recycling your own organic waste.
In the age of uneconomical food production, consumption and waste management, composting offers an accessible solution for recouping benefit from this wasteful culture. Anyone can compost and it requires minimal effort once you’re in the know.
Next time I visit the ladies room in my local pub, I will look deeply into Alan’s eyes as I wash my hands, knowing that instead of throwing away my food waste, I composted it.
Corporate social responsibility is fast becoming a staple in business transparency efforts and many organisations are devising and executing multifaceted CSR strategies, that run the spectrum from philanthropy to environmental sustainability to the pursuit of shared value. For many companies, this broad approach to CSR strategies is often hampered by a lack of coordination and logic when connecting the various programs. To maximize their positive impact on the social and environmental systems in which they operate, companies must develop coherent CSR strategies that all employees can both engage with and take responsibility of.
American born alpine and outdoor clothing company, Patagonia, takes a wildly innovative approach to challenging and venturing beyond the confines of traditional CSR; by the discouragement of compulsive consumerism, encouragement of conscious consumerism, call to actions and giving grants to green individuals and organizations: Patagonia. The clothing company started in the midst of the climate crisis with the mission to “use the resources we have – our business, our investments, our voice and our imaginations – to do something about it”. The company donates their time, services and at least 1% of sales to support grassroots organisations all over the world so they can remain vigilant and protect our irreplaceable Planet Earth.
In addition to financially supporting environmental campaigns, Patagonia’s corporate response to climate change dared to go one step further into beyond compliant territory, when they launched a digital platform called Patagonia Action Works, that connects its community to environmental action groups happening locally to them. The launch follows the huge success of the platform in North America, after it saw half a million people take action to support environmental issues of urgency and enabled users to volunteer time and skills, join events, sign petitions and donate to local and global conservation causes. This accessible platform not only unlocks the potential to support purpose-driven organisations, it mobilizes collective action.
In 2011, Patagonia shocked competitors and consumers alike when their Black Friday advertisement was released in The Times newspaper.
It was this radical advert that introduced Patagonia’s Common Threads Initiative – a zero waste culture that encourages consumers to buy less and wear more. “Recycling is what we do when we’re out of options to avoid, repair, or reuse the product first. That’s why I am so impressed with Patagonia for starting its Common Threads Initiative with the real solution: Reduce. Don’t buy what we don’t need. Repair: Fix stuff that still has life in it. Reuse: Share. Then, only when you’ve exhausted those options, recycle.” –Annie Leonard, author of The Story of Stuff.
Off the back of the Common Threads Initiative, Patagonia has recently launched an extension and their own online thrift store, Worn Wear. The Worn Wear mission is similar, reminding people that garments have a much longer lifespan than we think.
“Worn Wear is a set of tools to help our customers partner with Patagonia to take mutual responsibility to extend the life of the products Patagonia makes and customers purchase. The program provides significant resources for responsible care, repair, reuse and resale, and recycling at the end of a garment’s life.”
Patagonia’s Worn Wear website
Not only can a customer purchase pre-loved gear and clothing, they can trade in old Patagonia clothing in exchange for credit to use in their retail stores or online, to keep the garments as far away from landfills as possible.
As we get well into 2020, Patagonia is reforming the “make do and mend” culture, investing in sustainable programs and building a community of like-minded people, through access to education across a multitude of platforms – proving that a beyond compliant CSR strategy is commercially viable, attainable and endlessly rewarding.